Sources and Links



Online Articles



Online Discussions


  • CalMeacham: Online discussion of patents. Charter Member. (From: 05-24-2006, 07:06 AM) “It is a well-known fact that the toilet constructions currently in use in the western world, including both the bowls and the toilet seats, are not designed to take full advantage of the user's physiological functions. Patents such as U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,520,005 and 3,786,522 discuss in detail some of the drawbacks of conventional toilet construction. As is indicated in such patents, conventional toilet construction not only interferes with blood circulation in the user's legs, but additionally, tends to compress the user's buttocks thereby hampering the defecation process.”
  • Toilet Construction: U.S. Patent 4175294: A modified toilet seat that results in a semi-sqwatting position to take advantage of that positions natural physiological and wiping benefits.


  • Gargantua,” François Rabelais, (France: 1534).
  • “Fecal matters in early modern literature and art: Studies in scatology,” Russell Ganim and Jeff Persels, (Ashgate Publishing, 2004), pg. 167.
  • “Man and microbes: disease and plagues in history and modern times,” Arno Karlen, (Simon and Schuster, 1996), pg. 46.
  • “Wilderness Survival: Living Off the Land with the Clothes on Your Back and the Knife on Your Belt,” Mark Elbroch and Michael Pewtherer, (Ragged Mountain Press, 2006), 209-210.
  • “What's My Pee Telling Me?” Josh Richman and Anish Sheth, M.D., (Chronicle Books, 2009).
  • “What’s Your Poo Telling You?” Josh Richman and Anish Sheth, M.D., (Chronicle Books, 2007).
  • “Poop Culture: How America is Shaped by its Grossest National Product,” Dave Praeger, (Feral House, 2007).
  • “End product: The First Taboo,” Dan Sabbath, (Urizen Books, 1977).
  • “Scatologic rites of all nations,” John Gregory Bourke, (Johnson Reprint Corp, 1968).
  • “The Portable Scatalog: Excerpts from Scatalogic Rites of All Nations,” John G. Bourke, (W. Morrow, 1994).
  • “At Home: A Short History of Private Life,” by Bill Bryson. See Bathroom chapter.
  • “Clean: A History of Personal Hygiene and Purity,” Virginia Smith, (Oxford University Press, 2007).
  • “The Bathroom,” Alexander Kira, (Penguin, 1976).
  • “Composting Toilets and Greywater Disposal - Building Your Own.” Zandy Clark (Alternative Waste Treatment Assoc,1977)
  • “A Sociological History of Excretory Experience: Defecatory Manners and Toiletry Technologies,” David Inglis, (Edwin Mellen Press, 2001).
  • “Passing of the Outhouse,” Tom G. Murray, (Tom G. Murray, 1981).
  • “Merde: Excursions in Scientific, Cultural, and Socio-Historical Coprology,” Ralph A. Lewin, (Random House, 1990).
  • “History of Shit,” Dominique Laporte, (MIT Press, 2002).
  • “Shitting Pretty: How to Stay Clean and Healthy While Traveling,” Dr. Jane Wilson-Howarth, (Travelers' Tales, 2000).
  • “Excrement in the Late Middle Ages,” Susan Signe Morrison, (Palgrave MacMillan, 2008).
  • “What Technology Wants,” Kevin Kelly, (Viking, 2010).
  • “Latrinae et foricae: toilets in the Roman world,” Barry Hobson, (Duckworth Publishing, 2009).
  • “Plumbing and Household Sanitation.” John Pickering Putnam, (Nabu Press, 2010).
  • Poop Happened. A History of the World From the Bottom Up,” Sarah Ablee, (Walker’s Children, 2010).
  • “The Grimy, Gross Unusual History of the Toilet,” Nelson Yomtov
  • “The Story Behind Toilets,” Elizabeth Raum
The Butt End